Bone marrow transplantation
In the last decade, researchers have significantly increased their interest in using immunological approaches for the treatment of various diseases. This is due to the establishment of an important role of immunological mechanisms in the implementation of antiviral and antitumor protection of the body, in the manifestations of the graft-against-host and graft-against-tumor reactions. Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allotgsc) is a modern method of treatment of various hematological diseases, such as chronic and acute leukemias, aplastic anemia, myelodysplastic syndromes, as well as autoimmune diseases, accumulation diseases, etc.
The main problems of allotgsk are related to the fact that only about 15-25% of patients have an HLA-compatible related donor, and in some cases, the only method of choosing treatment for the disease is transplantation from an unrelated donor (compatible or partially compatible) or haploidentical transplantation. The main and most life-threatening complication after unrelated allogeneic and haploidentic transplants is the graft - versus-host reaction (GVHD). Depending on the protocols of immunosuppressive prevention of GVHD, the frequency of its development ranges from 30 to 80%, and the mortality rate is from 20 to 50%. Therefore, the study of the immunological aspects of the development of GVHD is relevant. In turn, the study of immunological indicators and identification of factors that allow predicting the development and diagnosis of GVHD at earlier stages will allow choosing an adequate therapy aimed at reducing the damaging effect of GVHD on the recipient's tissues while maintaining the effect of graft against leukemia (TPL).